Stages of Establishment and Development of the System of Public Administration in the Field of Construction of the Republic of Belarus
The integral system of state construction administration in Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) as one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union, began its development after liberation of the republic from occupation of the fascist army of Germany in 1944. Its establishment was caused by the necessity of restoration of everything that was destroyed during the Great Patriotic War. Practically all urban and rural settlements were totally destroyed as well as industries, agriculture and social sphere. The capital of the Republic of Belarus – Minsk – was destroyed at 85 %. At that time the issues of architectural, urban development activities, organization of design and exploration works in construction and coordination of the activities of design organizations were solved and conducted by the State Committee for Construction (Gosstroi of the BSSR – State Construction of the BSSR).
Within the framework of the centralized planned system the bodies of construction administration were set up in the principal industrial directions:
The Ministry of Residential Construction and Civil Engineering;
The Main Department of Industrial Construction;
The Main Department on Restoration of Minsk;
The Department for Rural and Agricultural Development and Construction.
Step by step these administration departments grew bigger and in 1953 the first three bodies were united in the Ministry of Residential Construction and Civil Engineering of the BSSR. After numerous reorganizations in 1957 it was transformed into the Ministry of Construction of the BSSR and existed as such till 1967. Besides, a separate administration structure was responsible for rural construction and development, in collective farms in particular.
By the mid-60-ies the volume of construction works in the republic significantly increased, and its more precise and clearer specialization was required. At this time, the construction administration system was established, and it existed until the beginning of the USSR collapse. It included the following: Gosstroi (State Construction), the Ministry of Industrial Construction (Minpromstroi), the Ministry of Rural Construction (Minselstroi) and the Ministry of Mounting and Special Construction Works (Minmontazhspetsstroi). They were the Republican and the Union structures who were administered by both the Government of the republic and the similar structures of the USSR.
The Minpromstroi (the Ministry of Industrial Construction) was the biggest one out of these structures. In different periods it included up to 40 construction and mounting and specialized complexes of enterprises (associations), a number of integrated house-building factories, industrial and auxiliary enterprises in Minsk, regional centers and the largest cities and towns. The majority of them functioned as the Main Works Contractors and carried out construction works in the above-mentioned towns and cities as well as in their suburbs. As the volume of the works in Minsk grew, the independent structure was set up here, and it was called Minskstroi Enterprise (Minsk Construction Enterprise).
Construction projects in rural areas, in most of district centers were carried out by both the Main Works Contractors and organizations of Minskstroi (Minsk Construction Enterprise). Associations and construction enterprises complexes of this Ministry were located in all regions. There were two and more of them in Minsk, Gomel and Vitebsk regions. In their turn, their structural subdivisions (construction and mounting enterprises and specialized construction and mounting enterprises) were located in all districts. Besides the administration of construction works in collective farms was conducted by independent structures for a long time.
Organizations of the Minmontazhspetsstroi (the Ministry of Mounting and Special Construction Works) carried out their activities as subcontractors. Mounting of metal constructions, installation of technological equipment and pipe installation were carried out by the construction enterprises complex “Khimmontazh” (“Chemical Mounting”), later it was called the association “Promtekhmontazh” (“Industrial Technical Mounting”). Electric installation works were carried out by the construction enterprises complex “Belelektromontazh” (“Belarusian Electric Installation”). Installation of ventilation and air-conditioning as well as sanitarian-technical systems was carried out by the complexes “Belsantekhmontazh No. 1” (“Belarusian Sanitarian Technical Installation No. 1”) and “Belsantekhmontazh No. 2” (“Belarusian Sanitarian Technical Installation No. 2”). Isolating of industrial equipment and pipes was carried out by the construction enterprises complex “Belteploizolyatsiya” (“Belarusian Heating Isolating”). All types of startup-setup operations including supervision of welding seal by non-destructive methods were carried out by the complex “Belpromnaladka” (“Belarusian Industrial Fettling”). Heating installation, fire-proof and lining works were carried out by the specialized administration “Teplomontazh” (“Heating Installation”). The Belarusian mechanization administration equipped with mobile hoisting machines and technological vehicles provided services in mechanization of all types of works. Besides a number of specific specialized mounting organizations were subjects of their headquarters in Moscow or Leningrad.
During the transitional period the following enterprises were established on the basis of construction ministries: the corporation “Belbud” (Belarusian Construction”), the association “Belselstroi” (“Belarusian Rural Development and Construction”) and the corporate group “Belstroimontazh” (“Belmontazhspetsstroi”) – (“Belarusian Construction Mounting” – “Belarusian Mounting Specialized Construction”).
At present the republican body for administration of construction activities in Belarus is represented by the Ministry of Architecture and Construction of the Republic of Belarus (Minstroiarkhitektury), which was established in accordance with the President’s of the Republic of Belarus Decree No. 74 dated from August 26, 1994. It took all functions of the previously existing structures of the former Ministry of Construction Materials Industry as well as (for a short time) the administration of road construction, from which the Ministry was then exempted.
The main tasks of the Ministry include development and implementation of state and technical policy in the field of construction, residential house construction, architecture, urban development and construction, construction materials industry, investment activities in construction, performance of technical norms establishment, development of standards and certification in this field in each region as well as effective state construction supervision carried out by the department of Gosstroinadzor (State Construction Supervision and Control), which is a part of the structure of the Ministry.
The Ministry of Architecture and Construction also ensures licensing of construction activities and carrying out of state extradepartmental expertise of project documentation in compliance with the legislation.